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Rutile locality?
  
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Pete Richards
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 13:45    Post subject: Rutile locality?  

Here is a nice little rutile twin on {101}. It claims to be from Graves Mountain, but I question that attribution, and RutileFox agrees that it is suspect. Does anyone have an alternative locality to suggest? What observations support your suggestion, if you have one?


IMG_2169.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Dimensions: 2 cm wide
 Description:
Front view. Back view is very similar.
 Viewed:  4903 Time(s)

IMG_2169.jpg



IMG_2179b.jpg
 Description:
Top view of twin
 Viewed:  4897 Time(s)

IMG_2179b.jpg



IMG_2173.jpg
 Description:
Left end (sorry about the lack of focus!)
 Viewed:  4898 Time(s)

IMG_2173.jpg



IMG_2200.jpg
 Description:
Right end
 Viewed:  4902 Time(s)

IMG_2200.jpg



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kushmeja




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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 14:03    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

Could be from Chester County, Pennsylvania. Most of the PA rutiles have striations like yours, and similar twins occur there as well.

I have a lot of Grave Mountain rutiles & have a focus on them for my collection, and I would agree that it doesn't look like it is from there. Graves rutiles don't typically have striations like yours does, although I have seen a few with them, but only 1 or 2 ever with striations to the extent that your has.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 14:09    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

I doubt it is from Pa. which were found in farmer's fields and had abraded edges.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 14:23    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

I would agree that most PA rutiles are pretty eroded for sure, but I have this one that is from Parkesburg that is quite sharp, and there are also pics on Mindat of a few with very sharp edges as well. Sorry for the poor pic, don't have my photo setup up.


20201217_142000.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
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 Viewed:  4857 Time(s)

20201217_142000.jpg


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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 15:19    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

kushmeja wrote:
Could be from Chester County, Pennsylvania. Most of the PA rutiles have striations like yours, and similar twins occur there as well.

I have a lot of Grave Mountain rutiles & have a focus on them for my collection, and I would agree that it doesn't look like it is from there. Graves rutiles don't typically have striations like yours does, although I have seen a few with them, but only 1 or 2 ever with striations to the extent that your has.


Thanks for your thoughts!

I have to agree with John Betts that Chester County does not seem right. In addition to the question of wear, my impression of Chester County rutiles is that they are not as cleanly formed as this one - more prone to having overlapping ridges like yours does.

But I agree with you that this crystal does not look right for Graves Mountain. Not only the striations, but the balanced, symmetric form, seems unusual to me. My perspective may be biased by what I found on two trips there, but most of mine are much less regular. And there's no sign of pyrophyllite or kyanite on this guy - no other mineral, in fact.

I would add to the general discussion that there are just two striated faces on each part of the twin, the front as I have shown and the back. The other faces, both on the prism and on the termination, are pretty planar and free of striations.

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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 15:50    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

If RutileFox does not know then who would?
He has the best rutile collection I am aware of...

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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 15:59    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

If I saw that piece without knowing what it was, I'd guess it was cassiterite rather than rutile, but I suppose that's just my Bolivian bias showing, and my absence of familiarity with rutile. (And being glued to a post like that makes it hard to check the density.)
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 16:52    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

The closest to your's appearance from this country that's on mindat is from California - both blocky and few striations.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 16:57    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

To John Betts: Yes, it's true.

To Alfredo: Yes, it's true. But I do think it's rutile. Right now I don't have access to the appropriate tools to check, sadly.

To Bob: Champion Mine? or elsewhere in California? I have thought about California as well.

Thanks to all!

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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 17:30    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

Yes Champion
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 17:40    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

Pete, I'm sure you're right about it being rutile versus cassiterite but, in case you ever need a method to test without having to unmount it from its stand, an electrician's meter should work. Rutile does not conduct electric current as far as I know, but cassiterite is a conductor, more or less, depending on the elemental impurities present.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 17:49    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

alfredo wrote:
Pete, I'm sure you're right about it being rutile versus cassiterite but, in case you ever need a method to test without having to unmount it from its stand, an electrician's meter should work. Rutile does not conduct electric current as far as I know, but cassiterite is a conductor, more or less, depending on the elemental impurities present.


This is interesting! Do you just use the meter as a continuity meter, or actually measure resistance?

Thanks, Alfredo! It's worth playing with.

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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 18:13    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

A friend of mine is an avid hunter of gold with a metal detector and he was complaining to me that certain minerals caused him trouble because they sounded "hot" on the detector and caused him to perform sweaty work for nothing. Among the worst offenders were graphite, pyrrhotite, covellite, and galena. So that chat aroused my curiosity about what other minerals might conduct electrons, and why electrical properties are not, apparently, studied by mineralogists or included in new species descriptions. So I started testing everything in my collection at the time that was big enough to test, no micromounts. Of course just low grade qualitative study, nothing quantitative. Quantitative work would I guess be not very meaningful unless using standard sizes and shapes of specimen, resistance increasing with thickness, etc. Did get some interesting results, for example, sulphides with metallic luster (so not counting things like sphalerite, realgar, etc) are far better conductors than sulphosalts, so for a massive grey unidentifiable chunk, the conductivity will at least tell you whether you have a sulphide or sulphosalt.

The only mineral with non-metallic luster that I could find that conducted to some extent was my Bolivian cassiterites. Later I heard that there was a patent for coating automobile glass with thin transparent cassiterite films to conduct current to heat it for defrosting, without embedding wires in the glass. There is one other non-metallic mineral that allegedly conducts current, blue diamonds, which are naturally boron doped, but so far I haven't persuaded anyone to donate me a nice blue diamond for testing. ;((

Then there are the weird minerals that conduct protons instead of electrons, and those are not metallic at all, like vivianite, for example.

Apologies for wandering way off the rutile locality topic here.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 19:47    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

John Betts wrote:
If RutileFox does not know then who would?
He has the best rutile collection I am aware of...


My thanks to Pete Richards for posting this challenge, and to John Betts for his call to action. After an extensive review of many rutile specimens, I've found a likely match and some interesting historical documentation that may explain the mistaken labeling from Graves Mountain.

The results are quite surprising, so please allow me a day or so for the write-up and photographs. Please stay tuned to this FMF thread ...

Peter Farquhar
"RutileFox"
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 20:25    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

Pete Richards wrote:
To John Betts: Yes, it's true.

To Alfredo: Yes, it's true. But I do think it's rutile. Right now I don't have access to the appropriate tools to check, sadly.

To Bob: Champion Mine? or elsewhere in California? I have thought about California as well.

Thanks to all!


I have never seen one like that from the Champion Spark Plug Mine, near Chalfant Valley, California.
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PostPosted: Dec 17, 2020 21:47    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

rweaver wrote:


I have never seen one like that from the Champion Spark Plug Mine, near Chalfant Valley, California.


Thanks for that information. I don't have more than a couple from there, but adding what one can see from Mindat images, I agree. The Champion specimens are actually rather like Graves Mountain specimens in their morphology, though usually glossier and perhaps smaller.

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PostPosted: Dec 19, 2020 12:04    Post subject: Brumado, Bahia, Brazil  

I am surprised that so many possible localities have been proposed yet what in my view are obvious candidates that have not, I think, been mentioned - Hiddenite, North Carolina and Brumado, Bahia, Brazil and other Brazilian localities. Attached is one from my collection from Brumado. It is a different twin law than Peter's, of course. The longer side is 3 cm. This is a Jeff Scovil photo.


Rutile - Brazil TW-2 23-8-77 Scovil.jpg
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Rutile - Brazil TW-2 23-8-77 Scovil.jpg


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PostPosted: Dec 20, 2020 17:09    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

In a moment, I'll explain why Pete Richards' rutile specimen is likely from the Blumberg rutile deposits about 40 km ENE of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia. This old rutile site from the late 1800s is located north of the small village of Blumberg (renamed Birdwood in 1917) and is surrounded by gold mining prospects. Many mineral collectors are probably not familiar with this rutile locality, so I'll begin with some background information.

The South Australia Mining Records 1905 Supplement describes the Blumberg deposits in a mining claim filed on September 27, 1900.

"RUTILE CLAIM -- Mineral lease No. 1050, 6 miles from Blumberg.

From time to time, for many years past, work has been carried on by various parties, but apparently in no instance has there been much enterprise or energy. The workings, which continue for about 150 yds. in length, are principally a number of small shafts, cross trenches, and surface openings, from 3 ft. to 30 ft. in depth, disclosing a soft clay kaolinized dyke formation, from 10 ft. to 12 ft. wide, striking slightly east of south.

Through this material rutile crystals in various forms, both coarse and fine, can be seen, in some places dispersed throughout the matrix, in others in pocket sand seams, and can be extracted by dish washing. For some distance on each side of the formation fine rutile can be obtained on the surface, but the most valuable is in a small seam of gravel resting on a clay bed about 12 in. below the surface, and which yielded very good prospects indeed, much better than had been anticipated, judging from the debris on the surface, and its position not being on the line. The better class material is at each end of the workings; from each of those several samples were taken, also from the surface and shallow pits, which, when bulked, gave an average return of 14 per cent. ... (I.M.R., 27-9-00)"

Thomas L. Watson (1913) examined several Blumberg rutile specimens and summarized their features in "The Rutile Deposits of the Eastern United States," USGS Bulletin 580-0, pp. 408-409. In particular, Watson notes that many rutile specimens "show marked evidence of mashing" with narrow fissures and fractures from pressure effects.

Dr. Albert E. Foote of Philadelphia acquired many of these novel rutile specimens from Blumberg, South Australia in the 1880-1890s. Dr. Foote's company packaged dozens of the smaller rutile pieces in square black boxes with glass tops, and then sold them as reference materials to universities and museums throughout the world. Dr. Foote also sold individual, larger rutile specimens from Blumberg. Sales and distribution of Blumberg, South Australia rutile specimens seem to wane after Dr. Foote's death in 1895.

Blumberg rutile specimens today almost always come from old collections or university deaccessions. For example, Photo 1 below shows a typical group of Blumberg rutiles in a small black box with Dr. Foote's label glued on the bottom. This box of rutiles reportedly "came into the collection of the Technical University in Aachen around 1900 and was sold with a partial collection in 1952," according to a recent listing on a German auction site.

Blumberg rutiles are typically not larger than 1 to 2 cm; are shiny black without red flashes; and may have small fissures or fractures. Blumberg rutile specimens are particularly rich in iron, niobium, vanadium, and chromium, which distinguishes them from many other localities.

For example, Photo 2 shows an old rutile specimen (PF-2389) with the Foote label, "Blumberg, near Adelaide, South Australia;" Photos 3 - 5 are close-ups of the same specimen from different angles. This Blumberg rutile looks quite similar to Pete Richards' specimen - both are elbow-twins with similar striations, smooth faces, dark coloration, small fractures, and general shape.

Photo 6 may explain the mistaken attribution to Graves Mountain, Georgia. This photo shows another group of small Blumberg rutiles (PF-3626) and their original black box that has Dr. Foote's label glued on the bottom. The bottom of the photo shows several small elbow twins from the Blumberg rutile deposits similar to the previous rutile specimen (PF-2389) and Pete Richards' specimen.

Photo 6, however, shows two preprinted Foote labels with this one black box of rutiles. The glued label on the bottom gives the locality as Blumberg, South Australia, but the loose Foote label gives the locality as Graves Mountain, Georgia.

It is an odd coincidence that Pete Richards' rutile specimen was labeled from Graves Mountain, Georgia, and the Foote Mineral Company inadvertently provided a preprinted label for Graves Mountain with this black box of Blumberg rutile specimens. How many times did this mistake occur?

In this case someone drew a line through the words for Graves Mountain on this label, but it is easy to imagine how such mistakes might be perpetuated -- particularly if some rutile specimens were separated from the original box. If someone had to guess, Graves Mountain is a familiar possibility, while Blumberg is an obscure locality for rutile.

The good news is that one can determine conclusively if Pete Richards' rutile specimen is from Blumberg, South Australia -- by conducting a microanalysis of trace elements (particularly chromium, niobium, vanadium, and others). Unlike rutile specimens from other localities in the world, researchers have established a signature profile of trace element concentrations in rutile specimens from Blumberg (e.g., see G. L. Luvizotto et al., "Rutile Crystals as Potential Trace Element and Isotope Mineral Standards for Microanalysis," Chemical Geology, vol. 261, April 2009, (3-4), pp. 346-369).

In fact, the signature profile of Blumberg rutiles (now called "R19 rutile") is so remarkably homogeneous across samples, R19 grains have the potential to become a mineral standard for quantitative provenance studies, geochronology testing, and other applications.

My thanks to Pete Richards for posting an exciting rutile locality challenge, and to John Betts for inspiring this forensic research and historical overview of the almost forgotten Blumberg locality.

Peter Farquhar
"RutileFox"



1-Box of rutile specimens, Blumberg SA.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Dimensions: 5 cm box
 Description:
A collection of small rutile specimens from Blumberg South Australia, packed in a black box and sold by Dr. A.E. Foote. From the Technical University in Aachen, Germany.
 Viewed:  4296 Time(s)

1-Box of rutile specimens, Blumberg SA.jpg



2-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia with Foote label.JPG
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Dimensions: 1.5 cm x 1.0 x 0.8 cm
 Description:
A fine rutile specimen from Blumberg South Australia with accompanying label from Dr. A. E. Foote of Philadelphia (circa 1890s).
 Viewed:  4298 Time(s)

2-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia with Foote label.JPG



3-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia.JPG
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Description:
Side view showing faint striations along elbow faces.
 Viewed:  4291 Time(s)

3-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia.JPG



4-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia .JPG
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Description:
A side view of elbow twin showing end terminations.
 Viewed:  4286 Time(s)

4-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia .JPG



5-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia.JPG
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Description:
Another side view of elbow twin showing opposite end termination.
 Viewed:  4289 Time(s)

5-Rutile (PF-2389) from Blumberg South Australia.JPG



6-Box of rutile specimens with two Foote labels.JPG
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Blumberg, Birdwood, South Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Australia
 Dimensions: 5 cm box
 Description:
Collection of rutile specimens (PF-3626) from Blumberg, South Australia in a black box. Contains several small elbow twins. Has different localities noted on two accompanying preprinted Foote labels!
 Viewed:  4290 Time(s)

6-Box of rutile specimens with two Foote labels.JPG


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Pete Richards
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PostPosted: Dec 21, 2020 20:44    Post subject: Re: Rutile locality?  

My thanks to Peter for his exposé on Blumberg rutiles. Like the many other collectors he mentions, I never heard of the place. The visible attributes of these rutiles do seem to match mine.

The paper by Luvizatto et al that is mentioned does indicate that this rutile has a consistent and unusual trace element chemistry. Unfortunately, the quantities of these trace elements are less than 2/10 of 1%, even the most abundant ones. It will take some pretty fancy analytical techniques to see if my twin matches the Blumberg trace element signature. I'll work on it....

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