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Epitaxial rutile
  
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Josele




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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 05:14    Post subject: Epitaxial rutile  

Is generally accepted that rutile forming 60º angle orientation between crystals is due to epitaxial growth on hematite. But very often hematite is not visible in the specimen, as in this case.

An infinitesimal (not visible) quantity of hematite is enough to start epitaxy?

Can rutile grow like this without hematite at all?

Thanks for your comment.



sagenite1.JPG
 Description:
Rutile and siderite on quartz
Alchuri, Shigar Valley, Skardu District, Pakistan
15 x 10 x 8 cm
 Viewed:  25946 Time(s)

sagenite1.JPG



sagenite2.JPG
 Description:
Rutile and siderite on quartz
Alchuri, Shigar Valley, Skardu District, Pakistan
FOV: 7 cm
 Viewed:  25973 Time(s)

sagenite2.JPG



sagenite3.JPG
 Description:
Rutile on quartz
Alchuri, Shigar Valley, Skardu District, Pakistan
FOV: 3 cm
 Viewed:  25936 Time(s)

sagenite3.JPG



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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 06:17    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Very nice close-up in the third photo. This is not epitaxy. What you have is twinned rutile in a very common form, often referred to as reticulated or geniculated, and rutile of this habit is known as sagenite. Twinned rutile like this is typical on quartz but can also be found on other substrates, such as siderite. Here are two examples from my collection of such twinned rutile in quartz from Lavro do Cascalho, near Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The smaller one is 4 cm across and the larger elongated one is nearly 11 cm. In the larger piece some of the rutile is entirely enclosed in quartz while much of it is not.

My guess is that this rutile is black because of a relatively high iron content, while your sample probably contains very little iron.



rutilated quartz - Brazil 14-9-25.JPG
 Description:
 Viewed:  25907 Time(s)

rutilated quartz - Brazil 14-9-25.JPG



rutilated quartz 14-2-15.JPG
 Description:
 Viewed:  25946 Time(s)

rutilated quartz 14-2-15.JPG



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Josele




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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 07:19    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Thank you John, then I was confused about sagenite growth.
In accord with this, I suppose that angles between crystals and twin plane is 65º (as is in rutile sixlings), not 60º as in epitaxial rutile on hematite. Given that there is two twinning operation affecting the same crystal, can this be considered as a particular case of cyclic twinning?



sagenite5.JPG
 Description:
Rutile on and into quartz
Alchuri, Shigar Valley, Skardu District, Pakistan
FOV: 6 cm
 Viewed:  25855 Time(s)

sagenite5.JPG



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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 08:39    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

In my earlier post I used the term geniculated incorrectly, for which I apologize. Geniculated twins are those that consist of just two components joined together like arm or leg bones at an angle.
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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 15:27    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

An other possibility is a pseudomorph of Rutile after preexistent Ilmenite. Only a thought of myself.
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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 16:07    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

John S. White wrote:
... This is not epitaxy. What you have is twinned rutile in a very common form, often referred to as reticulated ...

Somehow, John and I have a knack for coming down on opposite sides of a theory! Josele is right to raise the question of the angles between crystals, which should not be 60° if these are twins. Martin Rich offers a good idea - that the precursor could have been ilmenite rather than hematite, since the ilmenite could supply the titanium to make the rutile.

I have little crystals from Mont Saint-Hilaire which look exactly like ilmenite plates, except that they are decorated with tri-directional lines just like sagenite, and often have projecting spikes of rutile. SEM-EDS shows that they contain no iron - only titanium and oxygen. These are oriented replacements of ilmenite by rutile that started out as epitactic associations, I believe.

I have also seen thick sagenitic mats of rutile embedded in vein quartz, and they clearly have a platy shape with well-defined edges. The surrounding quartz proves that this was the original shape of the aggregate. We have the same problem here as we have with cyclic twinning - if it is twinning, how does the rutile know how to stay in one plane as it twins, and fill out the well-defined shape but grow no farther? There are four equivalent and equally likely directions of twinning for rutile which define two planes at right angles to each other. A multiply twinned rutile should at least be composed of two intersecting sheets of needle-shaped crystals, and more likely should be a three-dimensional bush, not a planar disc.

I'm not prepared to say that sagenites NEVER form by twinning, though I find it difficult to see how it could happen. And in some cases, I believe we can infer that they form by oriented replacement of ilmenite or some other mineral.



Rutile_Ilmenite 3a.jpg
 Description:
Rutile after ilmenite
Poudrette Quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
crystals are about 1 mm across
 Viewed:  25741 Time(s)

Rutile_Ilmenite 3a.jpg



Rutile_Ilmenite 3b.jpg
 Description:
Rutile after ilmenite
Poudrette Quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
crystals are about 1 mm across
Detail of first SEM image
 Viewed:  25732 Time(s)

Rutile_Ilmenite 3b.jpg



Rutile_ilmenite3g.JPG
 Description:
Rutile after ilmenite
Poudrette Quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
crystals are about 1 mm across
 Viewed:  25756 Time(s)

Rutile_ilmenite3g.JPG



Rutile_Ilmenite 2.JPG
 Description:
Rutile after ilmenite?
Rowlandsville (now part of Philadelphia), Pennsylvania
Rutile disc is about 2" across
 Viewed:  25731 Time(s)

Rutile_Ilmenite 2.JPG



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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 16:38    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

More info: Ilmenite pseudo
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PostPosted: Nov 28, 2013 18:49    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Epitaxy, twinning, pseudomorphism... all together... Wow! this becomes more and more interesting!
From my naive ignorance I can think only about angles to determine if a sagenite is due to epitaxy or twinning. There is not much difference between 60 and 65º having in mind that nature tend to create divergences in theoretically parallel growth crystals.
Let me add some fuel to the fire with two simple observations:



sagenite12.jpg
 Description:
A is somewhat shorter than B and C, which are almost equal, conforming a more or less isosceles triangle little higher than the equilateral. To my understand, if is a twin, this triangle should be isosceles but slightly lower than equilateral. Pictures were taken perpendicular to sagenite plane. Measurements based on photos are not very reliable data but can be a clue.
 Viewed:  25682 Time(s)

sagenite12.jpg



P1060129.JPG
 Description:
This is supposed epitaxial rutile on hematite (or perhaps ilmenite pseudo after epitaxial rutile on hematite?) The triangle conformed by the three main directions is equilateral. Not absolutely reliable but...
 Viewed:  25693 Time(s)

P1060129.JPG



P1060093.JPG
 Description:
Entire sample of previous photo
Haramosh Mts., Skardu District, Pakistan
6 x 4,5 x 1,5 cm
 Viewed:  25683 Time(s)

P1060093.JPG



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marco campos-venuti




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PostPosted: Jul 17, 2014 12:19    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Just some pictures of the famous star rutile quartz. In these samples crystallization starts with hematite crystal (iron oxide) and when iron finished, then start to crystallize the rutile (titanium oxide). The rutile is red to yellow because most of the iron was used in the hematite crystal.


Quarzo con stella di rutilo, Brazil (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Star of rutile in quartz crystal
Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil
A small hematite crystal lies at the center (6.5 cm)
 Viewed:  23322 Time(s)

Quarzo con stella di rutilo, Brazil (Medium).JPG



IMG_2265 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Star of rutile in quartz crystal
Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil
With hematite crystal at the center
 Viewed:  23408 Time(s)

IMG_2265 (Medium).JPG



IMG_2276 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Star rutile in quartz
Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil
25 mm, 30.3 cts
 Viewed:  23315 Time(s)

IMG_2276 (Medium).JPG


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marco campos-venuti




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PostPosted: Jul 17, 2014 12:22    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

In this sample the rutile star grows along an elongated hematite.


IMG_2278 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Star rutile in quartz
Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil
14 mm, 18.2 cts
 Viewed:  23275 Time(s)

IMG_2278 (Medium).JPG



IMG_2279 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
top view of the same sample
 Viewed:  23291 Time(s)

IMG_2279 (Medium).JPG


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marco campos-venuti




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PostPosted: Jul 17, 2014 12:26    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

This is sagenite. It is called green rutile. Just a little bit green, I don't know why. It is from an old deposit.


IMG_2286 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Sagenite rutile in quartz
Brazil
24 mm, 23.3 cts
 Viewed:  23307 Time(s)

IMG_2286 (Medium).JPG


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marco campos-venuti




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PostPosted: Jul 17, 2014 12:28    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

An other sagenite, but a bit different. It is yellow and is composed of individual stars.


IMG_2271 (Medium).JPG
 Description:
Sagenite rutile in quartz
Brazil
25 mm, 28.6 cts
 Viewed:  23317 Time(s)

IMG_2271 (Medium).JPG


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Mark Ost




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PostPosted: Jul 17, 2014 20:00    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Stunning examples Marco
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PostPosted: Jul 25, 2014 15:54    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Josele wrote:
Epitaxy, twinning, pseudomorphism... all together... Wow! this becomes more and more interesting!
From my naive ignorance I can think only about angles to determine if a sagenite is due to epitaxy or twinning. There is not much difference between 60 and 65º having in mind that nature tend to create divergences in theoretically parallel growth crystals.
Let me add some fuel to the fire with two simple observations:

In fact I think that crystals in your first photo are not twinned : some elements of the twin seems to be missing
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PostPosted: Jul 25, 2014 16:24    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

More pics:


P1120609.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Alchuri, Shigar District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FOV: 5 cm
 Description:
Rutile on quartz
 Viewed:  22430 Time(s)

P1120609.jpg


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Josele




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PostPosted: Nov 25, 2021 10:27    Post subject: Epitaxial or twinned rutile?  

I have not photomicrography equipment but recently I bough a mobile phone with microscope camera (30x). Depth of field is very short, focal length is fixed and there is no possibility of stacking photos. Even so, some shots are useful to observe details.

I took some photos of the same rutile in last photo and also of another one on hematite. What I see leads me to think about the possibility that epitaxy and twinning coexist in some sagenite nets. Maybe this is a common thing but I haven't read about it.

Comments are welcome, thanks for your interest.



IMG20211029004035.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Alchuri, Shigar District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.0 mm
 Description:
Contacts between needles are not perfectly encased elbows as we see in macro twins

Central diagonal needles are somewhat divergent, maybe one is epitactic and the other one twinned?
 Viewed:  309 Time(s)

IMG20211029004035.jpg



IMG20211029003930.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Alchuri, Shigar District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
Unconnected needles form about 60º angles while some small elbows above left at the photo are ≈65º
 Viewed:  309 Time(s)

IMG20211029003930.jpg



IMG20211029004114.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Alchuri, Shigar District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
Vertical and oblique rutile are connected forming ≈65º angles
 Viewed:  308 Time(s)

IMG20211029004114.jpg



IMG20211029004127.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Tormiq Valley, Baltistan District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
Connected needles at the lower half of photo are at ≈65º while overlapped ones in the upper half form ≈60º angles

Twinning, epitaxy or both?
 Viewed:  308 Time(s)

IMG20211029004127.jpg



P1230146.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile on hematite with muscovite
 Locality:
Alchuri, Shigar District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: 6 x 4.5 x 1.5 cm
 Description:
Hematite with epitaxial rutile running perfectly parallel to its three crystallographic basal axes
 Viewed:  309 Time(s)

P1230146.jpg



P1230106.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Tormiq Valley, Baltistan District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.5 cm
 Description:
Macroscopically, rutile runs parallel to crystallographic axes forming ≈60º angles…
 Viewed:  309 Time(s)

P1230106.jpg



IMG20211028012156.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Tormiq Valley, Baltistan District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
…but microscopically most angles are ≈65º and elbows look like perfect twin joints
 Viewed:  308 Time(s)

IMG20211028012156.jpg



IMG20211028012211.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Tormiq Valley, Baltistan District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
Full of elbows at ≈65º
 Viewed:  308 Time(s)

IMG20211028012211.jpg



IMG20211028012249.jpg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
Tormiq Valley, Baltistan District, Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas), Pakistan
 Dimensions: FoV: 2.66 mm
 Description:
Even staggered neat elbows at ≈65º

Epitaxy, twinning or a combination?
 Viewed:  309 Time(s)

IMG20211028012249.jpg


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PostPosted: Nov 25, 2021 11:57    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Here is a fun one taken of my self collected material from the Eclipse Mine, photomicrograh by Nathan Renfro. Proposed epitaxy of rutile on Anatase or Brookite.


C2EF4898-C5EB-4699-ADBF-6E4AF43769D5.jpeg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
El Dorado Co., California, USA
 Dimensions: 3mm
 Description:
 Viewed:  294 Time(s)

C2EF4898-C5EB-4699-ADBF-6E4AF43769D5.jpeg


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PostPosted: Nov 25, 2021 12:18    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Here is a sample of photos I took myself with my iPhone 6, these were all collected from the Eclipse Pocket at our Eclipse Mine. Here you can clearly make out the Anatase cores on some, and on others it is not visible... there are easily 5 different colors of rutile that came from this pocket.


61337FC6-5B32-4759-9098-48300AC9D714.jpeg
 Mineral: Anatase, Rutile
 Locality:
El Dorado County, California, USA
 Dimensions: 8mm
 Description:
 Viewed:  283 Time(s)

61337FC6-5B32-4759-9098-48300AC9D714.jpeg



BDB1D716-BF33-4929-B369-FFD48A35B66C.jpeg
 Mineral: Anatase, Rutile, Chlorite
 Locality:
El Dorado County, California, USA
 Description:
 Viewed:  284 Time(s)

BDB1D716-BF33-4929-B369-FFD48A35B66C.jpeg



8B607337-87A3-4375-B6D8-5F953BC7066C.jpeg
 Mineral: Rutile
 Locality:
El Dorado County, California, USA
 Dimensions: 9mm
 Description:
I love the blonde color of this Rutile. Also from the Eclipse Pocket at the Eclipse Mine. Unknown core mineral.
 Viewed:  284 Time(s)

8B607337-87A3-4375-B6D8-5F953BC7066C.jpeg



A0A31D4B-D857-46B6-8D42-8D907E0F1868.jpeg
 Mineral: Anatase, Rutile, Dolomite
 Locality:
El Dorado County, California, USA
 Dimensions: 7mm
 Description:
Two colors of rutile side by side.
 Viewed:  284 Time(s)

A0A31D4B-D857-46B6-8D42-8D907E0F1868.jpeg


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Eck Noch




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PostPosted: Nov 25, 2021 12:33    Post subject: Re: Epitaxial rutile  

Another photo micrograph by Nathan Renfro of material from the Eclipse Pocket.


F8F5C7EC-8A1D-43CB-9CAA-409FBE8118AC.jpeg
 Description:
Photo Credit: Nathan Renfro
 Viewed:  277 Time(s)

F8F5C7EC-8A1D-43CB-9CAA-409FBE8118AC.jpeg


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